Aerial view of the United States military headquarters, the Pentagon

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The Pentagon – the world’s largest workplace constructing – is america’ navy headquarters

A know-how firm bidding for a Pentagon contract to retailer delicate knowledge has shut partnerships with a agency linked to a sanctioned Russian oligarch, the BBC has realized.

The Jedi challenge, an enormous cyber-cloud which may in the end retailer nuclear codes, has already sparked safety fears.

Viktor Vekselberg, who’s near the Kremlin, has hyperlinks to the C5 Group, a cyber-investment agency which has labored intently with the main bidder, Amazon Internet Companies (AWS).

Each C5 and AWS say C5 just isn’t concerned within the Jedi bid in any method.

All bids for the cloud are sealed. The Pentagon refused to remark stating that details about firms concerned couldn’t be disclosed.

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Viktor Vekselberg (L) has met Russian President Vladimir Putin on quite a few events

What’s the Jedi contract?

In a bid to compete with Russia and China, the Joint Enterprise Defence Infrastructure is among the most formidable ventures the Pentagon has launched.

As an alternative of navy knowledge being saved on smaller servers throughout totally different departments throughout the Pentagon, the data might be held in a cloud.

The cloud is a time period used to explain various distant servers, related to the web, which may retailer huge arrays of knowledge and may be accessed from anyplace on this planet.

Prime navy secrets and techniques might be transferred to the Jedi cloud, together with categorized particulars about weapons methods, navy personnel, intelligence and operations.

It would present troopers on the frontline with immediate entry to all the newest intelligence, making them more practical on the battlefield.

US Brigadier Normal Krumm, who helped to plan the contract, defined at its launch that having such data on the navy’s fingertips would assist the US win wars.

He stated: “The knowledge must be obtainable to a military platoon pleasant unit is simply across the block and won’t open hearth.

“It is bought to be obtainable to a platoon of marines who’re about to breach a door that an IED has been discovered.”

There have been warnings that if the Pentagon’s IT system just isn’t up to date urgently then the US will “lose the long run struggle”.

Enormous, international know-how firms similar to Microsoft, Oracle and IBM have submitted bids, with a choice due in April 2019.

Main voices within the sector – together with the opposite firms vying for the contract – say that Amazon Internet Companies (AWS) is the clear frontrunner.

Why is the challenge so controversial?

John Weiler, the director of the IT procurement group IT-AAC primarily based in Washington, instructed the BBC: “I’d not retailer my most private knowledge, nor would my fellow colleagues, in a business cloud, interval, the top.”

He says there are big dangers to storing such categorized data on a public, commercially-held cloud run by only one firm.

“We have now our nuclear codes, the place our troops are going to be from someday to the subsequent. If the cloud’s safety is breached then our enemies may use our data in opposition to us. They could possibly be ready for us.”

The Pentagon needed to clarify to Congress why it was solely providing the contract to a single firm, with requires a cloud of this dimension to be run by a number of service suppliers to unfold the danger of safety breaches.

It stated having only one cloud supplier would higher serve troops on the bottom and would velocity up entry to very important data.

AWS additionally defended the US authorities’s place stating: “A single cloud could be safer than a multi-cloud setting.”

There have additionally been accusations that the bid has been written with only one firm in thoughts, AWS, one thing the Pentagon denies, saying that the method has been clear and neutral.

Questions have additionally been raised about AWS’ hyperlinks to the C5 Group.

Who’re Amazon Internet Companies and C5 Capital?

Amazon Internet Companies has grown to be the most important cloud service supplier on this planet. A subsidiary of the web procuring firm, it controls a 3rd of the cloud computing market.

The C5 Group is a relative newcomer however inside just a few years it has raised £100m to spend money on cyber-security.

Regardless of AWS and C5 working collectively on various cloud computing tasks everywhere in the world, each firms have denied having an in depth relationship.

One of many many cyber-companies within the C5 group, C5 Speed up claims on its web site that it’s “creating a Cloud Accelerator Cluster in Europe, the Center East, Africa, and america, alongside Amazon Internet Companies”.

C5 maintains it has by no means made a joint contract bid with AWS of any variety in any nation and has labored with different cloud service suppliers like IBM and Microsoft.

Nevertheless, the vice-president of AWS, Teresa Carlson, and the person behind the C5 Group, Andre Pienaar, have toured the world selling their firms’ relationship.

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AWS already has the mandatory safety clearances as a consequence of their involvement with the CIA’s computing cloud

They’ve additionally joined forces on a challenge within the Center East. AWS secured a contract to develop cloud-computing platforms for the Kingdom of Bahrain, and C5 got here in emigrate authorities web sites to the cloud.

Who’s Andre Pienaar and the way is he linked to Russia?

Mr Pienaar, the person behind the C5 group, is a well-connected South African with enterprise ties to a wealth of illustrious names.

The board of one in all his flagship firms, C5 Capital, encompasses a roll name of among the most influential and trusted figures in navy and safety circles on either side of the Atlantic.

He additionally has hyperlinks to Viktor Vekselberg, who’s on the US sanctions listing for his shut ties to Vladimir Putin.

When the BBC requested Viktor Vekselberg if he knew Mr Pienaar, he stated that for two-and-a-half years, Mr Pienaar was a paid portfolio supervisor for his companies in South Africa. That position solely got here to an finish earlier this 12 months.

In keeping with this model of occasions he will need to have been working for Mr Vekselberg while operating C5 and dealing on tasks with Amazon Internet Companies.

When the BBC put that to Mr Pienaar, he denied having ever labored for Mr Vekselberg’s firm, and stated he had solely suggested them on a mining challenge.

Shortly afterwards, Viktor Vekselberg’s spokesman got here again to amend their earlier assertion to match Mr Pienaar’s – which might recommend that they’re nonetheless in touch.

How is his enterprise, the C5 Group, linked to Russia?

Trying by means of the labyrinthine construction of firms round C5, the BBC has discovered an injection of Russian cash.

One in all C5’s subsidiaries, C5 Razor Bidco, introduced in an funding of £16.1m in 2015, simply as Vladmir Kuznetsov grew to become a director and main shareholder of the corporate.

AWS pressured that it doesn’t work with C5 Razor Bidco. Nevertheless, C5 Razor Bidco is a part of the C5 Group and is owned by Andre Pienaar.

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Media captionHow the Russian oligarch system works

Vladimir Kuznetsov is widely reported as being the trusted lieutenant of the sanctioned Russian oligarch Viktor Vekselberg.

He labored for the Russian oligarch from 1999 till earlier this 12 months, when the sanctions in opposition to Mr Vekselberg led to mass resignations throughout the board of his enterprise group, Renova.

Mr Kuznetsov instructed the BBC he had resigned from the vast majority of Mr Vekselberg’s firms in 2014, aside from remaining on the board of Renova Administration till April 2018.

He denied being his “right-hand man”.

The BBC has additionally seen a doc, printed by an organisation known as the Household Workplace Circle Basis in 2016, which states that Mr Kuznetsov, who was talking at one in all their occasions, was from “Viktor Vekselberg’s household places of work” and was “director of Renova Group”.

Mr Kuznetsov stated his funding in C5 Razor Bidco was not influenced by both Mr Vekselberg or the Kremlin and the cash got here from his personal checking account.

C5 stated that the oligarch had indirectly or not directly invested in any of the group’s firms.

Mr Vekselberg stated Mr Kuznetsov has by no means run “his household places of work” and he has not made any funding in C5’s portfolio by means of Mr Kuznetsov or by every other means.

Who’s Viktor Vekselberg?

His repute within the US as a “good oligarch” who spent his cash on Fabergé eggs was tainted in April this 12 months when the US authorities sanctioned him for his shut ties to the Kremlin.

Mr Vekselberg has stated he’ll attraction in opposition to the sanctions which have proved pricey to a few of his multi-million pound companies.

Former Pentagon official Michael Carpenter, who was the deputy assistant secretary of defence overseeing Russia, instructed the BBC that he believes Mr Vekselberg “poses a threat to the US”.

“Any oligarch in Russia when known as upon by the Kremlin to do their bidding will accomplish that, and that’s the situation that they preserve their wealth.”

Shortly after his title appeared on the US Treasury’s sanctions listing, the billionaire was stopped as he tried to board a aircraft in New York.

Federal brokers working for the Robert Mueller inquiry into alleged Russian interference within the 2016 US election questioned him and seized his digital units.

He denies any wrongdoing or involvement in President Donald Trump’s marketing campaign.

It emerged earlier this 12 months that Columbus Nova, an organization affiliated to his Renova Group empire, paid £500,000 to Michael Cohen, Mr Trump’s lawyer on the time.

The cash went to his firm, Important Consultants LLC, the agency he used as a part of a “hush settlement” with Stormy Daniels to forestall her publicising her alleged affair with Mr Trump.

Andrey Shtorkh, a spokesman for Mr Vekselberg, instructed NBC Information that neither Mr Vekselberg nor Renova “has ever had any contractual relationship with Mr Cohen or Important Consultants”.

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Keystone SDA

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Vladimir Kuznetsov was the chief technique officer for one in all Viktor Vekselberg’s key firms, the Renova Group

What’s Skolkovo?

When the Skolkovo Innovation Centre was established by the Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev again in 2009, when he was Russia’s president, it was seen because the nation’s reply to Silicon Valley.

Viktor Vekselberg was introduced in to run it and has remained on the helm ever since.

It was described as an incubator of the newest applied sciences which might create 1000’s of jobs and assist cut back Russia’s dependence on oil and gasoline, and permit it to compete with the West.

Nevertheless, just a few years after its inception, warnings of potential espionage got here from each the US navy and the FBI, an accusation that Skolkovo and Viktor Vekselberg strongly deny.

Each the FBI and the US navy have warned that the innovation centre, designed to rival California’s Silicon Valley, could possibly be a entrance for “industrial espionage”.

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Skolkovo is described as a “know-how incubator”.

Mr Vekselberg stated it was with “nice remorse” that Skolkovo had been the topic of such criticism and that the centre labored intently with the US and lots of international know-how firms as a part of an “ecosystem” the place “innovation and entrepreneurship can thrive”.