The paper, published in the Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, particulars an historic physique of water referred to as the Trans-Sarahan Seaway, which coated elements of Western Africa 100 million to 50 million years in the past.

For 20 years, scientists examined fossils and sediment in present-day Mali to type an correct image of what this prehistoric setting appeared like. They concluded the physique of water was heat and shallow and, much less pleasantly, was dwelling to five-foot-long catfish and 40-foot-long sea snakes.

Ancient Malian catfish specimens and their estimated sizes. The largest catfish was estimated to be 160cm in length, or about 5.2 feet. Ancient Malian catfish specimens and their estimated sizes. The largest catfish was estimated to be 160cm in length, or about 5.2 feet.

“The traditional Malian ecosystem had quite a few apex predators together with Crocodyliformes, Serpentes, and Amiidae, a few of which had been among the many largest species of their clades,” the paper reads. (A clade is a bunch of organisms thought to have developed from the identical ancestor.)

In plain English, that is crocodile-like animals, snakes and ugly fish; all of them designed to kill.

Why they had been so massive

How did they get so massive? The Trans-Saharan Seaway ran north-to-south from what’s now Algeria to what’s now Nigeria. Which means it was remoted from bigger our bodies of water throughout lengthy durations of its existence.

In line with the paper, this type of isolation could have restricted predators and ensured sources had been all the time out there, which is an ideal recipe for a species to develop unchecked.

“The Trans-Saharan Seaway exhibited intermittent isolation from main seas,” the paper reads. “This environmental variable could have created aquatic facilities of endemism, stimulating choice for gigantism as beforehand noticed for species on terrestrial islands.”

Endemism is when a species is confined to a selected space.

The Sahara has clearly come a great distance from the nightmare aquarium it as soon as was. In 2014, local weather simulations concluded the arid Sahara we know today was formed about seven million years ago when a shift in tectonic plates closed off the area from the encompassing seas.

*To be clear, all prehistoric sea creatures had been scary.